Author: Brigid Laurie

Greetings from…. Smithsonian Exhibits!

You read that right – OEC is now

 

New-Logo
A new logo for a new name … and it’s not an acronym!

 

Why change our name? We wanted something that quickly conveys that we are the Smithsonian’s full service exhibit planning, design, and production shop. The new name is clean and simple. It shows that we can work with you from the earliest stages of your project straight through to installation.

To celebrate our new name we’re hosting an open house on October 29. If you’ve ever wondered what goes on here at our facility in Landover, this is your chance to find out! You can talk with our staff and even check out some of our works in progress. We hope to see you then!

Making a Mural at National Portrait Gallery

The National Portrait Gallery opened One Life: Dolores Huerta on July 3. Huerta was a founder of the United Farm Workers and served as the organization’s lobbyist and contracts negotiator.

OEC printed and installed the large mural featured at the entrance to the exhibit, using LexJet Print-N-Stick Fabric. To accommodate the size of the graphic, OEC printed it in three pieces and installed it on-site.

 

Huerta-1
Graphic specialists Evan Keeling and Jessica Schick examine the seam between the first two panels of the mural.
Photo by Project Manager Mary Seng

 

Huerta-2
Evan lines up the third panel.
Photo by Mary Seng

 

Huerta-3
After tacking the edges together, Evan and Jessica begin to remove the backing from the print.
Photo by Mary Seng

 

Huerta-4
Evan and Jessica trim excess material from the overlapping edges.
Photo by Mary Seng

 

Huerta-5
The completed mural shows Dolores Huerta holding a sign reading Huelga, Spanish for “strike.”
Photo by Jessica Schick

One Life: Dolores Huerta is open through May 15, 2016.

Delivering National Postal Museum Graphics

OEC produced the graphics for Freedom Just Around the Corner, a graphic show in the prestigious Postmaster’s Suite at the National Postal Museum. The 57 graphics included small object labels, reader rails, in-case graphics, and large-scale signage. Freedom Just Around the Corner is the National Postal Museum’s first exhibit “devoted entirely to African American history.”

For OEC, one notable aspect of the graphic production was the use of large sign blank. The sheer size of the graphics required tiling the files and piecing them together. After determining the best way to tile the graphics, the images were printed directly to the sign blank and then assembled into the final image at the National Postal Museum.

npm-large-scale-graphic
This large-scale graphic was tiled together.

This exhibit also offered OEC a chance to work with new equipment. This was the first show that required the use of our new automated mat cutter. Mat cutting previously involved placing the object, marking its corners with pinholes, and then cutting the mat to size using the pinholes as a “connect the dots” frame. With the automated mat cutter, the mat cuts were programmed into an Illustrator file. The file is then uploaded to the mat cutter, which makes precision cuts from the layout provided.

npm-matte-cutter-detail
Graphics specialist Evan Keeling used our new mat cutter to create the frames for the stamps.

One of the signature images in the exhibition had unique challenges. This graphic, consisting of a reproduced Civil War era photograph and quote, is placed directly on an arch-topped mirror. The first challenge was simply a matter of materials. In general, working on a reflective surface can be an exacting task. Further complicating things, the mirror is a permanent fixture within the Postmaster’s Suite. This meant that the graphic had to be applied on-site, not at OEC. Evan worked around these obstacles by creating a template of the mirror out of Sintra. He used the template to examine the proportions and color of the graphic, and determine how to best apply it to the mirror. After experimenting on the template at OEC, Evan finalized the graphic. This ensured that the application of the graphic would go – literally – smoothly.

Freedom-NPM-Mirror
The reproduction black-and-white photograph applied to the mirror makes a poignant visual.

Installation did go smoothly, and Freedom Just Around the Corner will remain on display through February 16, 2016.

Sea Lion Sculptures at the National Zoo: Original Art by OEC

01-empty-rocks
Empty rocks, or rather, a blank canvas.

OEC’s 3D studio isn’t just for model making. We can create original sculptures, too. Sculptor Lora Collins, who is also the 3D Studio supervisor, designed and sculpted the sea lion statues that were recently installed at the National Zoo.

Lora created the sea lion mom and pup using a combination of traditional art techniques and high tech innovations.

First, Lora met with animal keepers Rebecca Sturniolo and Chelsea Grubb at the National Zoo to discuss the project, scout out the location for the statues, and meet her model.

02 Calli 5
Our model Calli strikes a regal pose. Don’t hate her because she’s beautiful.

 

Next, Lora sculpted 3-inch-high maquettes to present to the Zoo. The mini-sea lions were placed on scale model replicas of their future rock bases. To accomplish this, Megan Dattoria and Carolyn Thome scanned the rocks at the Zoo, and Chris Hollshwander cut the scale models using the CNC router. By digitally capturing the surface of the rocks and importing that information into the CNC router, OEC ensured that the statues and the bases would fit together like puzzle pieces. The maquettes gave the Zoo a chance to see what the statues would look like, and also how they would be placed on the rocks.

2a maquettes
Maquettes are preliminary sketches or miniatures that artists use to provide a preview of their work.

 

To give an even better idea of how the completed statues would look, the maquettes were scanned and the images were placed into a digital model of the Zoo.

03-sea-lion-maquette-digital-manip
Creating a computerized rendering of the final placement gives OEC and the Zoo a chance to see how this will look before the full-sized statues are even started.

 

After the Zoo approved the maquettes, Lora created the full-size sculptures. Carolyn used the scans from the digital model to create a file for the CNC router. This time, Chris used the router to cut out sections of foam to build the internal structure, called armature, of the statues.

04-internal-foam-structure
Stacked pieces of foam create a larger version of the maquette, shown in front.

 

After assembling the armature, Lora and exhibit designer Kristen Orr covered the foam in roughly half an inch of oil-based clay. While it might seem like this would get the sculpture most of the way to complete, that is not the case. In fact, they aren’t even at the halfway point. Now that the sculptures are larger, there is more room for lifelike detail. And details take a lot of time.

05-applying-clay
Kristen and Lora apply clay to the foam armature.

 

What exactly does “lifelike detail” mean? In this case, it means that Lora worked with animal keepers Rebecca and Chelsea to ensure accurate representations of all the things that make sea lions so adorable: chubby cheeks, fat rolls, whiskers, and – in an interesting twist – no eyes.

 

No eyes?

06 sea lion no eyes!
Shadows create the illusion of eyes.

Lora left an open socket instead of inserting an eye, because the shadows created by the socket would look like a sea lion’s inky eye.

 

 

And then of course, they had to add the toenails.

Sea lions have toenails?

7-8-toenails
Lora inserted wooden dowels directly into the clay to create toenails that look just like Calli’s, shown on the right.

 

Sculpting a sea lion’s coat is very time-consuming. Our sea lions are sitting on rocks as if they have just leapt out of the water. Sea lions, while furry, have a sleek, smooth appearance when they emerge from the water. Achieving this level of smoothness takes weeks – yes, weeks – to remove the bumps and imperfections on the surface. So our sea lions got a blowout. Well, not exactly, but Lora and Kristen did use a hair dryer to warm the clay to make it more malleable. They also applied denatured alcohol to smooth it.

After the Zoo approved the life-sized clay models, they were cast in fiberglass. To do this, both clay sea lions had to be split into three sections with brass sheets, or shims.

09-divided
Brass shims divide the clay sculptures into three sections.

 

Once the shims were in place, Lora sprayed the clay sculpture with silicone rubber. Then, working in sections, Lora applied several layers of fiberglass and polyester resin on top of the rubber to create a hard shell. She repeated this step for each section of the sculptures. Each section required a full day of work, meaning it took six days to make the molds.

10-half-rubber-half-fiberglass
The section on the left has been covered in fiberglass. The other sections are still only covered in purple rubber.

 

When this step is completed, the negative space inside the rubber mold serves as the form for the final fiberglass sculpture.

11-Rubber-coated-
Appearances can be deceiving. The outside of the rubber coating might not look as good as the clay model, but the interior of the rubber mold picks up all of the details – from the whiskers down to the toenails. Just like your mom told you, it’s what is on the inside that counts.

 

After creating the mold, Lora trimmed away the edges, called flange by sculptors. Then she drilled holes into the mold so that she could bolt the molds shut.

After the mold was completed, the three sections were pulled apart and cleaned for casting. Lora, with help from Megan, Daniel Fielding, and Brad Ruprecht cast the sea lion in vinyl ester resin. Then additional resin and fiberglass were layered into the mold to add thickness and strength. Finally, they bolted together the mold and sealed its seams with fiberglass.

Then they repeated the casting process for the other mold. Each casting took one day.

12-gel-coat-detail
The first layer applied, called a gel coat, is the outermost layer. This layer can be tinted, as it was here.

 

The next day Lora opened the molds and removed the sculptures. After grinding off excess fiberglass and resin, filling in thinner spots, and adding reinforcing layers along the edges and flippers, Lora fiberglassed three stainless steel brackets, custom-made by Chris, into the castings. The brackets allowed for a secure yet non-permanent attachment to the rock.

13 fresh from the mold
When first removed from the mold, the statues have visible seams that need to be sanded down. Part of an open mold can be seen in the background.

 

At this point, Lora applied polyester resin fillers as needed, sanded the sculptures smooth, and primed them for painting. Erin Mahoney and Carolyn Thome painted the sea lions with automotive paint and sprayed the finished sculptures with a protective clear coat.

 

14 Filling in thin spots
A sea lion gets a few final touch ups of resin filler.
15 primed for paint
The primed statues are ready for their paint jobs.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

16-Carolyn-Painting-the-pup
Carolyn paints the pup.

 

17 painted mom and pup
Painted and ready to go to the Zoo!

 

Finally, after all of those steps, the sea lions – and a team from OEC – arrived at the Zoo for installation on April 15.

18-Fernando-install
Fernando Dominguez, shown here, installed the sea lion sculptures with Lora, Carolyn, and Megan.

 

19-Chelsea-and-Rebecca
Inspiration and Art: On the left, Chelsea poses with the real Calli. At right, Rebecca shows off one of the American Trail’s new statues.
20-Lora-install
Lora sits with one of her wonderful statues.
21-installed
Mom and pup gaze at each other in their new home.

 

You can see the new sea lion statues along the American Trail at the National Zoo.

 

 

One Hundred Skulls: OEC and Exploring Human Origins

We love our exhibitions and we want people to come and see them in person. Unfortunately, a trip to Washington just isn’t in the cards for everyone. Luckily, sometimes the Smithsonian is able to come to you. Today, a traveling version of the National Museum of Natural History’s Hall of Human Origins begins a journey to libraries across the United States. (If you can’t visit Exploring Human Origins in person, you can still view the digitized Human Origins 3D collection online.)

At OEC we’re particularly excited about the traveling Exploring Human Origins exhibition. To get this show on the road, our model shop had the remarkable task of making 95 skulls. Additionally, the model shop oversaw the creation of five nylon skulls that were printed off-site from OEC files, and then painted at OEC.

Interactive skulls
Five nylon skulls are used in interactives in the Exploring Human Origins exhibit. The nylon skulls were painted with automotive paint to withstand the stresses of being handled by visitors.

 

In addition to the five skulls used in the exhibition, each of the nineteen hosting libraries will receive copies of the five skulls. OEC is printing those skulls in-house.

The obvious question is: how do you go about making a few dozen skulls?

OEC’s Carolyn Thome, Megan Dattoria, and Erin Mahoney were willing to explain.

 

It all starts with a scan – and then more scans. Scanning is how the model makers gather their data – the density, cracks, seams, ridges – any and all details that need to be copied.

1 scanning
A scanner records the details of a cast of the Fish Hoek skull. All of the skulls scanned are from the Human Origins Program research collection.

 

Once the data is collected, it’s processed to create a file. That file is used to 3D print the skull.

2 processing
Carolyn Thome uses the Artec scanner software to process the file for 3D printing. The Fish Hoek skull keeps her company.

 

The skull is printed out of gypsum powder. Depending on the final size of the 3D replica, it could be printed in several pieces and assembled later.

3 print
Two of the skulls, fresh off the printer, await their next step towards being exhibit-ready.

 

Gypsum powder is messy, and the completed prints need to be cleaned. Model makers use a vacuum to remove the residue from the skull.

 

Freshly printed skulls (or 3D printed anything for that matter) are very fragile. Infiltrating them with an epoxy makes them more durable. After infiltration, the skull needs 24 hours to dry.

5 infiltrate
The epoxy soaks into the gypsum powder, creating a much more durable object.

 

Each printed skull needs to be sanded by hand to remove build lines. Build lines are the thin layers that accumulate as the gypsum powder forms the replica.

6 sanding
Erin Mahoney sands the underside of a printed skull.

 

The skulls come out of the printer the color of the gypsum powder. While that’s still amazing – these are 3D printed skulls after all – it’s a bit like looking at a black and white copy of a color photo. The skulls have to be hand-painted to truly look like the original.

7 paint
After sanding off the build lines, Erin paints the skull. She uses multiple images of the originals as a guide as she creates the mottled appearance of old bones.

 

The final product then gets a clear coat of automotive sealer to protect the paint.

8 finish
After applying the clear coat, the skull needs 12 hours to dry.

 

 

9 completed skulls
A complete set of five skulls awaits shipping to a host library.

 

Putting Ourselves On Display

It should be no surprise that OEC is filled with creative and talented people. Our work has helped show off many great works of art. For Artists At Work, not only did we design, edit, and produce the graphics for the exhibition, but we also had a chance to celebrate three of our own artists and the artwork they make on their own time.

Model maker Megan Dattoria, graphics specialist Kate Fleming, and sculptor and model shop supervisor Lora Moran-Collins were among the 56 artists featured in the Smithsonian Community Committee’s fourth juried staff art show.

 

2015 Staff Art Show opening
Megan Dattoria stands next to her mixed media necklace, Of Disease. She also made the mount to display her piece.

 

 

2015 Staff Art Show opening
Kate Fleming served double duty on this exhibition. As a graphic specialist, she made the labels for all of the artwork on display… including the label for her own print, Andrew Studying.

 

2015 Staff Art Show opening
Lora Moran-Collins, who makes models and sculptures at OEC, is also a gifted painter. Her painting, After, is oil on canvas.

 

 

1 OEC staff
The OEC Artists At Work team attended the opening reception in February. From left to right: editor Brigid Laurie, exhibit designer Emily Sloat Shaw, Lora Moran-Collins, Kate Fleming, Megan Dattoria, and project manager Betsy Robinson.

 

Artists At Work is open through May 1, 2015 at the S. Dillon Ripley Center.

 

 

Putting the Puzzle Together: Traditional + Computerized Fabrication Techniques

Smithsonian Gardens recently opened The 20th annual orchid exhibition, Interlocking Science and Beauty, at the National Museum of Natural History. The exhibit explores “where botany, horticulture, and technology connect.”  OEC’s approach to the exhibit components mirrored this interlocking theme.

Puzzle Piece Install
Staff from Smithsonian Gardens installing a tree behind OEC’s puzzle piece graphic panels.

OEC created detail drawings from Natural History’s design and produced all of the built elements in the exhibition. The team produced the structural components using traditional fabrication methods, but the interlocking puzzle piece panels were machined using the Computerized Numerical Control (CNC) panel router.

Fabrication shared their CNC files with Graphics, so they were able to create graphics that matched the profile of the panels. After the panels were sent to the paint department for finishing, Graphics direct printed the images and text onto the panels using a flatbed printer.

Interlocked Pieces
The interlocking pieces feature graphics that were designed to fit the puzzle piece shapes.

Orchids: Interlocking Science and Beauty will be on display through April 26, 2015 at the National Museum of Natural History.

Applied Arts

The Hirshhorn celebrated its 40th anniversary by renovating the third floor galleries. The first exhibition in the new space, At the Hub of Things: New Views of the Collection brings together pieces from the museum’s collection spanning themes, generations, and media.

A new iteration of Lawrence Weiner’s A Rubber Ball Thrown on the Sea, produced and installed by OEC, graces the curved walls of the space. Kate Fleming, one of the Exhibits Specialists who worked on the project, explained how the seven words in Weiner’s conceptual piece were applied to the gallery wall.

After testing different painting techniques at our facility in Landover, the team decided to use two different vinyl friskets to paint the blue letters with black outlines. (For those of you who don’t work in art or exhibitions, this is your vocabulary word of the day. A frisket is basically a sticky stencil. It is applied directly to a surface, and because it is adhesive, there is no paint bleed underneath the ‘mask’ like you usually have with a regular stencil, even if you are painting on a vertical surface like a gallery wall.)

 

Frisket 1 testing
We test painted on our own wall at OEC.

 

The bowed walls of the Hirshhorn created an optical allusion – skewing the way the words appeared as they wrapped around the curves. To combat this issue, the team used a digital level to place the friskets at a 22.5° angle. This precise placement ensured that the words could be viewed the same way from multiple locations in the room.

The first step was to back paint the frisket with the wall color. This helped adhere the frisket to the wall and prevented color bleed. Then the first frisket was used to paint the outline in a highly pigmented, high gloss black paint. (As seen in the letter E above.) To achieve a streak-free lustrous finish the OEC team used a minimum of three coats of black.

A second frisket was cut out and placed over the letters, protecting the edges to create the black border. This time the frisket was back painted with black. Then OEC painted the blue inside the outline. (This is the masking over the letter A above.)

 

Frisket 2 installation
Erica Querns, on ladder, and Kate Fleming, on scaffolding, apply a frisket to the gallery wall.

After the vinyl was removed, the team made few touch ups to the paint and the finished work was complete. The crisp, clean lines of this piece are on view in the Abram Lerner Room on the third floor of the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden.

 

ATHOT_Weiner_Installation_Panoramic
Lawrence Weiner, A RUBBER BALL THROWN ON THE SEA, Cat. No. 146, 1969. Installation view of At the Hub of Things: New Views of the Collection at the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, Smithsonian Institution, Washington DC, 2014. Photo: Cathy Carver

The Oldest and Newest Technologies Combined: Making Object Mounts for Cooper Hewitt

On December 12, Cooper Hewitt Smithsonian Design Museum reopened to the public after a lengthy renovation. One of their opening exhibitions, Tools: Extending Our Reach, features 175 objects that have shaped human life. Creating mounts for the ancient artifacts featured in Tools posed some unique challenges.

The mounts needed to display the object without obscuring it. Due to their age, the objects cannot be handled excessively making measuring difficult, and in the case of hand-carved tools, even if we could handle the objects freely, their uneven surfaces aren’t easy to measure anyway.

So how exactly can OEC make these mounts? How do we know that

this

handaxe mount

 will fit

mounted handaxe

this?

Megan Dattoria, OEC mountmaker and 3D printing innovator, is using cutting edge technology to create custom brackets that are a perfect fit for each object. She was kind enough to explain how she makes custom mounts with minimal object handling. (The object in the photos below is a modern interpretation of an ancient stone tool like the one shown above.)

 

1scanning

Megan took 45 rotational photographs of the tool. The targets were used to document the object’s scale.

 

2digitalfile
She used photogrammetry software to create a digital file of the 3D model.

 

3print crop
Megan printed a model of the tool and worked with that instead of handling the original object. She could hold it and determine its center of gravity.

 

4digitalbracket
Megan virtually placed the tool into the correct display position and built the bracket within the program. The resulting bracket corresponded exactly to the tool’s bumps and crevices.

 

6printedbracket
The digital bracket was printed in wax and then cast in brass. Megan painted and padded the final version.

 

7complete
The real object in the mount – a perfect fit!

 

The Art of Building for Artists

One of the stars of the Hirshhorn’s new exhibition, Days of Endless Time, is the American debut of German artist Clemens von Wedemeyer’s Afterimage (2013). OEC fabricators Adam Bradshaw and Enrique Dominguez, along with intern Colby Styskal and volunteers Juan Lucas and Neal Falanga, built the semicircular screen used to show this work from nine separate curved panels.

screen_install
OEC staff installs the curved screen for “Afterimage.”

OEC used CAD/CAM programs to lay out and cut the plywood ribs. The seams required three blind panel connections. The connections were skinned with bending ply on the front and back, and the screen was raised off the floor with 4×4 posts.

Luan plywood was used on the back of the screen to create a “raw shipping crate” appearance. The plywood was coated with a clear fire retardant finish. Unlike the raw look of the back, the front surface was laminated in phenolic paper. This covered any imperfections and created a smooth screen for the projection. After the screen was anchored to the floor, the seams were caulked and the face was painted with white projection screen paint.

DSC02367
The back of the screen resembles a shipping crate.

Afterimage and the other 13 artworks featured in Days of Endless Time will be on display through April 6, 2015.